Agriculture and food
The level of household food security in the district is quite low. According to the district situation analysis paper the district has an expected food requirement of 168,000 50kg bags of maize but production levels have continued to dwindle for close to a decade now. The most hit areas are Lukulu West and some wards in Lukulu East.
The rainfall pattern is not stable in the district and thus has largely contributed to low food yields and drop in agricultural production. This has contributed to food insecurity and a drop in household income levels in the district since the majority of the population rely on agriculture for their livelihood. During the lean period, most schools record low pupil turnout as most of them engage in food piece work and the collection of wild fruits.
Lukulu district has inadequate learning facilities. Many parents desire for their children to be in school but in most cases, classroom space is limited and this leads to overcrowding in classrooms (with a radio of one girl to two boys) of 40 pupils per teacher/class. This makes it extremely difficult for the teacher to provide quality education.
These problems are mainly due to the fact that the education sector in Zambia is generally poorly funded and therefore constrained with resources to support the construction and recruitment of additional classrooms and teachers respectively. Although government has in recent years increased the level of funding to education, this still falls far below what is required. As a result, many teachers posted to rural areas lack proper accommodation facilities and are subjected to very deplorable housing conditions. An increasing trend has been for communities to build houses for teachers through the use of local materials. The challenge is that these houses do not meet the accepted standard for a teacher’s house. This, in addition to factors such as inadequate teaching aids and materials has led to low morale among teachers and as well as pupils thereby affecting the quality of education.
Women and youth
While it is undeniable that women and youth can play an important role in development, their involvement in planning and decision making is quite insignificant and even non-existent in some areas. Women and youth are not taken on board during the decision making process rendering the processes of governance one sided or male based. Not consulting women and youth creates an inclusive approach to development, particularly when it is women and youth who are most affected by various issues.
Governance and accountability
Many people – especially those who are illiterate - have not been active in charting their way of being governed. It has remained the preserve of the literate. The power sharing aspect doesn’t seem to work; therefore people possess limited knowledge view development as a privilege rather than their right, neither do they understand that they actually contribute towards resources for development through taxes they pay.